There are 3 types of cheese: Hard, Soft and Ripened.
- Hard : Parmesan, Cheddar,
- Soft : Port du Salut, Taleggio, Munster, cottage, cream, Mozarella
- Ripened: Brie, Blue, Camembert
Most cheeses taste better if served at room temp. for 2 to 3 hours before serving as it tastes better than serving it cold from the fridge. Soft cheeses are the exception. Cottage cheese and cream cheeses are especially good served cold.
If you are buying store-bought milk to make your cheese you will need to add calcium chloride back into the milk as the pasteurization process removes this from the milk. Adding calcium chloride into the milk will help firm up the curd. Using Ultra High Temperature milk for cheese making is also never successful as the high heating process it goes through affects the whey proteins and your milk will not form curds.
Cultures are either mesophilic or thermophilic. Yogurt is an example of a thermophilic culture, while buttermilk is an example of a mesophilic culture. You can either make your own cultures, or you can buy them. The big freezer in the milk room has direct vat cultures for sale.
Rennet and Cultures for Making Cheese
Rennet is important for you milk to coagulate. You can get animal rennet that comes from the lining of calf stomachs, or you get vegetarian rennet that is made from certain plants. Either one will work well but use the liquid form for making cheese. Junket tablets are for making deserts not cheese. If that is all you have it is ok to use. 3 drops of iquid rennet or 1/2 tablet rennet are usually diluted in a 1/4 cup of cool water.
You will need a large, heavy-based pot for warming the milk in (or you can use a sink) and a colander to assist in draining the whey. You will also need a ladle that has holes in the bottom to allow the curds to drain off the whey. Cheesecloth or butter muslin is required to further help in draining the excess whey, long-handled knife to cut the curds and a thermometer. For making hard cheese you will need a cheese mold. You can make them with round stainless steel cutlery holders, which work just as well, or plastic bowls that have holes to allow the whey to drain off. THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IS THAT EVERYTHING MUST BE STERILE.
STEP 1. BRING MILK TO ROOM TEMPERATURE
To be successful with your homemade cheese making, you will need to bring your milk to room temperature before you start. You can do this by taking the milk out of the fridge for 1-2 hours before hand, so that you can start. The temperature right from the cow is perfect.
STEP 2: HEAT THE MILK
When making any type of cheese the next step is to heat the milk. This is necessary for the lactose in the milk to covert to lactic acid. The presence of lactic acid is necessary for your milk to coagulate and helps the curd separate from the whey.
STEP 3: ADD THE STARTER
HOMEMADE STARTERS and COMMERCIAL STARTER
These starters may be lemon juice, vinegar, buttermilk, yogurt, or dried cultures from cheese suppliers in the form of mesophilic or thermophilic cultures, each of which when added, will result in a different flavor of cheese.
STEP 4:ADDING RENNET
After your milk has been left to ripen, you can start adding your rennet. However, using rennet is a bit of a science as if you add too little, your milk won’t develop curds, and if you add too much, your milk will give you curds that are too dense.
Dilute your rennet in 1/2 c of cool to warm water, and when you add it to the milk, stir it thoroughly for even distribution. After the rennet has been added, the milk is again left undisturbed so that the curds can form. The amount of the rennet will depend on the concentration. Usually 1/4 to 1/2 tsp.
STEP 5: CLEAN BREAK & CUTTING THE CURD
When your curd has formed, and you have the clean break that you are looking for, you will need to take that long-handled knife mentioned earlier and cut the curd into 1-2 inch blocks. When doing this make sure that the knife goes all the way down to the bottom of the pot.
So how do you know when your curd has reached that stage of a clean break? If you put your finger into the curd and pull upwards the curd should break away and whey should pool in the hole that has been left behind. If it doesn’t, you will need to wait a little longer. Patience! …
STEP 6: CURDS & WHEY
This part of the process always reminds me of Little Miss Muffet! However, I digress! Back to the job of cheese making. What you want for making cheese is of course the curds. However, never throw the liquid, called the whey, out. Any excess whey can be fed to chickens and pigs on the homestead. More importantly, as a baker it is like manna from heaven. Substituting milk or water for whey in muffins, homemade bread, pancakes and cakes will result in an excellent finished product, light and moist; you will surprised at the results.
Place your butter muslin, or cheesecloth in a colander and with your slotted spoon, scoop the curds out of the pot and into the colander. Collect the whey at the bottom by placing your colander in another bowl. Leave it to drain like this until all excess whey has been removed.
If cottage or soft cheese, you are done. If hard cheese place the curds in a cheese press now, semi soft hang your bag of curds for two hours or longer to get more whey out.
STEP 7: Salting the cheese
Cheese will need salt both to store and for flavor. 2 gallons of cheese will make a little less than two pound block of cheese. You can salt in a brine, you add the salt right to the curds. The amount of salt is very important and specific to each recipe.
STEP 7: Drying the Cheese
Fresh cheese and soft cheese can be eaten right away and requires no drying time but needs to be stored in a cold climate. A wine cooler is about perfect for most cheese; but you can age in the humidifier of your fridge as well if your temp will stay about 55. Hard cheeses need to be stored on their sides and moved daily. Brined cheeses can be stored in the fridge. We hope to get a wine cooler in the near future to store our cheeses in. A pan with water that can be changed daily will help keep the humidity correct.
So you can see, that by making sure that your equipment has been sterilized, and that you have the right type of milk, rennet and cultures, in 7 easy steps, you too could me making homemade cheese.